What parts of a caffeine molecule make it basic?
The “lone pair” is in the unhybridised p orbital and is part of the aromatic system so is unavailable to act as a proton acceptor. N2 is also sp2 hybridised, but here the lone pair is in the sp2 hybrid orbital pointing away from the ring system. It is able to act as a proton acceptor, so this N is basic.
Which functional groups can act as a base?
Amino groups can also act as bases, which means that the nitrogen atom can bond to a third hydrogen atom as shown in the image below. Once this occurs, the nitrogen atom gains a positive charge and can now participate in ionic bonds. The amine functional group can exist in a deprotonated or protonated state.
Why is caffeine a base?
Caffeine is not acidic. In fact, it is basic. It will raise the pH of water to some degree. It is a weak base, so the free base will exist in equilibrium with its protonated counterpart.
What is the structure of caffeine and what functional groups are present?
The caffeine molecule also contains methyl groups (−CH3), carbonyl groups (−C=O), an alkene group (−C=C) and also an imine group (−C=N).
What functional group does caffeine belong?
The functional groups in caffeine are amine and amide.
Is caffeine an acid or base?
Chemically speaking, coffee is acidic because it contains acidic properties such as chlorogenic acid, tannins, and polyphenols. The caffeine in coffee also stimulates the release of more stomach acid, causing stomach irritation to some people.
Is methyl group a functional group?
The methyl group is the only nonpolar functional group in our class list above. The methyl group consists of a carbon atom bound to three hydrogen atoms.
Is carbonyl functional group polar?
Thus, molecules containing the carbonyl group are polar. Compounds containing a carbonyl group have higher melting and boiling points than hydrocarbons containing the same number of carbon atoms and are more soluble in polar solvents such as water.
Is caffeine a base analog?
Thus, the CAF molecule acts as an analogue base of A and can be incorporated into the DNA macromolecule and paired with T and C in normal and rare state, respectively.
What functional group is caffeine?
How does the structure of caffeine affect its function?
Caffeine is structurally similar to adenosine, found in our brains. Both molecules are water and fat soluble so they easily cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, adenosine protects us by slowing nerve cell activity. Due to its similar structure, caffeine binds to the adenosine receptors.
What type of compound is caffeine?
Caffeine, also known as coffein or mateina, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety. Caffeine is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa).