What is succession and zonation?

What is succession and zonation?

In simple terms, zonation is a sequence of vegetation in space, while succession is a sequence in time.

What does succession mean in ecology?

Ecological succession is the process by which the mix of species and habitat in an area changes over time. Gradually, these communities replace one another until a “climax community”—like a mature forest—is reached, or until a disturbance, like a fire, occurs. Ecological succession is a fundamental concept in ecology.

What is zonation in environmental science?

​Zonation refers to changes in community along an environmental gradient due to factors such as changes in altitude, latitude, tidal level or distance from shore (coverage by water).

What are the 5 stages of ecological succession?

The succession takes place due to changes in the physical environment and population of the species. The succession is mainly of two types: primary and secondary succession. The ecological succession occurs in the five stages viz nudation, invasion, competition and coaction, reaction and stabilisation.

What is an example of succession?

Succession can happen even in mature or climax communities. For example, when a tree falls in a mature forest, sunlight may again be able to reach the forest floor, which would allow new growth to begin. In this case, succession would begin with new smaller plants.

What causes zonation?

Zonation….. the variation in the distribution of organisms caused by differences in both biotic and abiotic conditions along an environmental gradient. Organisms living on the rocky shore have different adaptations to these factors and therefore will be able to survive at different heights on the shore accordingly.

Why does ecological succession occur?

Ecological succession occurs due to the changes in the physical environment and population of species. It may also occur when the conditions of an environment suddenly and drastically change. For example, forest fires, wind storms, and human activities all greatly alter the conditions of an environment.

What is the relationship between ecological succession and equilibrium in an ecosystem?

When a community eventually reaches the last stage of succession, what is typically referred to as a climax community, the composition of the community is stable. Thus, any small disturbances will be counterbalanced. The system is at a relative equilibrium.

What are the 3 types of zonation?


  • epipelagic zone – the zone where photosynthetic organisms (such as planktons) thrive as they require enough light for photosynthesis.
  • mesopelagic zone – the zone under epipelagic zone where nektons are abundant.
  • bathypelagic zone – the zone near to the deep sea floor where benthos abound.

How are primary and secondary succession different?

In primary succession, newly exposed or newly formed rock is colonized by living things for the first time. In secondary succession, an area previously occupied by living things is disturbed—disrupted—then recolonized following the disturbance.

What are the 3 types of succession?

What Are the Types of Succession in Biology?

  • Primary Succession.
  • Secondary Succession.
  • Allogenic Succession.
  • Degradation Succession.

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