What does bilateral testicular microlithiasis mean?
Testicular microlithiasis (tes-TIK-yoo-lur my-kroh-lih-THIE-uh-sis) is a condition in which small clusters of calcium form in the testicles. It can be detected on an ultrasound exam of the scrotum. Several studies show a relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer.
What causes bilateral testicular microlithiasis?
Testicular microlithiasis is more common in patients with other testicular pathologies, including cryptorchidism, varicocele, pseudohermaphroditism, germ cell tumors, and infertility. The condition is also more common in patients with Down or Klinefelter syndromes.
How do you treat bilateral testicular microlithiasis?
There is no cure or treatment for testicular microlithiasis, however, patients may be monitored via ultrasound to make sure that other conditions do not develop. Emphasis on testicular examination is the recommended follow up for asymptomatic men incidentally identified with testicular microlithiasis.
Is testicular microlithiasis serious?
Calcium deposits in the testicle (called testicular microlithiasis) increase a man’s risk of developing cancer. They are usually found when an ultrasound is done for other reasons.
Is testicular microlithiasis common?
Summary: Testicular microlithiasis is common and while microcalcifications do exist in roughly 50% of germ cell tumors the majority of men with testicular microlithiasis will not develop testicular cancer.
Is testicular microlithiasis normal?
Testicular microlithiasis is a relatively uncommon condition that represents the deposition of multiple tiny calcifications throughout both testes. The most common criterion for diagnosis is that of five microcalcifications in one testis, although definitions have varied in the past.
Is testicular microlithiasis genetic?
Testicular microlithiasis appeared to cluster in certain families. These findings suggest both a familial predisposition to TM and an association between TM and FTGCT. If proven, this could be clinically important to men in FTGCT families, and may be useful in identifying specific genes involved in FTGCT.
Is testicular microlithiasis painful?
 Mostly, the presentation is asymptomatic and is often diagnosed with imaging. There are reports of painful testicular microlithiasis.  The mechanism of pain was suggested to be distension of seminiferous tubules. Other conditions in which TM is diagnosed often are infertility and testicular tumors.
How is Microlithiasis treated?
GCNIS may be diagnosed adjacent to existing testicular tumors, contralateral to known testicular tumors, and among patients undergoing testicular biopsy for other reasons. Treatment options for patients with GCNIS include preventative orchiectomy, radiotherapy, surveillance, or chemotherapy.
Is testicular microlithiasis hereditary?
Testicular microlithiasis appeared to cluster in certain families. These findings suggest both a familial predisposition to TM and an association between TM and FTGCT.