What are the examples of free variation?
Alan Cruttenden, author of Gimson’s Pronunciation of English, offers a clear definition of free variation by giving an example: “When the same speaker produces noticeably different pronunciations of the word cat (e.g. by exploding or not exploding the final /t/), the different realizations of the phonemes are said to …
What is free variation in linguistics?
in linguistics, the state in which variant forms of the same linguistic unit appear on an apparently random basis. The term is most often used in phonology.
What are free and Allophonic variations?
Secondly, a more extreme case of within-language allophonic variation is ”free allophonic variation,” that is, when the different allophones can occur in free variation within the same context and syllable position without their use being constrained by register or speech rate.
What is the difference between complementary distribution and free variation?
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.
What is Labialization in phonology?
rounding, also called Labialization, in phonetics, the production of a sound with the lips rounded. Vowels, semivowels, and some consonants may be rounded. In English, examples of rounded vowels are o in “note,” oo in “look,” and the u sound in “rule” and “boot”; w in “well” is an example of a rounded semivowel.
What is variation in phonology?
Phonological variation – differences between accents – comes in a variety of forms. Some speakers might be difficult to place geographically, while others who speak with a broader accent might use a number of localised pronunciation features. This might include the articulation of certain consonant or vowel sounds.
Are allophones in free variation?
We call this phenomenon free variation. The two sounds can be referred to as allophones. These sounds are merely variations in pronunciation of the same phoneme and do not change the meaning of the word. Free variation can be found in various dialects of the same language.
What does allophonic variations depend on?
But most allophones are entirely predictable: linguists say that allophonic variation is phonetically conditioned because it depends on what other sounds are nearby within the word.
Are ŋ and ŋ in complementary or contrastive distribution?
They are complementary because [n] and [ŋ] don’t occur in the same environment, or overlap in the list of word examples.
How do you know if two sounds are complementary distribution?
Two classes of sounds are in complementary distribution if there is a context such that one class only occurs there and the other class can’t occur there. For English speakers, aspirated [pH] and unaspirated [p] seem like slightly different versions of the same sound.