What are blood oxygenators?

What are blood oxygenators?

Blood oxygenators, also known as artificial lungs, are widely used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to maintain physiologic oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in blood, and also serve as respiratory assist devices to support patients with lung failure.

For what purpose is oxygenator used?

An oxygenator is a medical device that is capable of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood of human patient during surgical procedures that may necessitate the interruption or cessation of blood flow in the body, a critical organ or great blood vessel.

What is purpose of oxygenator in ECMO?

The ECMO machine pumps blood from the patient’s body to an artificial lung (oxygenator) that adds oxygen to it and removes carbon dioxide. Thus, it replaces the function of the person’s own lungs.

What is ECMO tubing made of?

For the ECMO circuit, these surfaces typically include PVC, silicone, polycarbonate, polymethylpentene, and/or polypropylene. Each of these materials is hydrophobic, with some being more hydrophobic than others depending on the side chain composition of the main polymer.

Is a ventilator same as oxygen concentrator?

The difference between an oxygen concentrator and a ventilator is that an oxygen concentrator provides oxygen without any force and is inhaled with the individual’s efforts, whereas a ventilator uses force provided by the machine to push air into the patient’s lungs.

How does the heart-lung machine oxygenate blood?

The heart-lung machine carries blood from the upper-right chamber of the heart (the right atrium) to a special reservoir called an oxygenator. Inside the oxygenator, oxygen bubbles up through the blood and enters the red blood cells. This causes the blood to turn from dark (oxygen-poor) to bright red (oxygen-rich).

Can you be awake on ECMO?

Awake ECMO is ECMO without mechanical ventilation in spontaneously breathing patients. These patients are maintained awake through the ECMO run [3]. Many centres in India are still in the early stage of gaining experience with ECMO.

What are the different types of oxygenators?

Current oxygenators are of two types: bubble and membrane. The membranes (across which oxygen diffuses and enters red blood cells) may be in the form of plates, coils, or hollow fibers. Figure 1 shows two hollow-fiber membrane oxygenators; the membranes consist of microporous polypropylene (Celanese Celgard).

What are the characteristics of blood oxygenators?

The design of blood oxygenators is specific, the materials have to show stringent characteristics in terms of compatibility for medical use, and either porous hydrophobic or dense membranes are proposed. Each unit is of small size. Suppliers are specialized for this application and differ from the other technology providers.

What type of oxygen is used in heart surgery?

Blood oxygenators (artificial lungs) Blood oxygenators are used during heart surgery. Until the early 1980s direct oxygenation of blood was used to maintain patients during surgery. Rotating discs or small countercurrent contacting towers delivered oxygen to the blood and removed carbon dioxide.

What is the function of the oxygenator?

The oxygenator provides a large surface area for an interface between blood and the gas phase, either with hollow fibers or a folded silicone membrane. An oxygen rich gas mixture is passed through the oxygenator in the direction opposite to blood flow, establishing a countercurrent that promotes diffusion of oxygen into the blood.

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