What does protein kinase R do?
A candidate to play a role in the process is protein kinase R (PKR), first identified as a cellular protector against viral infection and today known as a major regulator of central cellular processes including mRNA translation, transcriptional control, regulation of apoptosis, and cell proliferation.
What activates PKR?
Protein kinase-R is activated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), introduced to the cells by a viral infection. PKR can also be activated by the protein PACT or by heparin. PKR contains an N-terminal dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) and a C-terminal kinase domain, that gives it pro-apoptotic (cell-killing) functions.
Where is PKR?
key takeaways. The Pakistani rupee (PKR) is the official currency of Pakistan. The PKR was introduced in 1947 after gaining independence from the British and autonomy from India.
What are the most common protein kinases?
There are two main types of protein kinase. The great majority are serine/threonine kinases, which phosphorylate the hydroxyl groups of serines and threonines in their targets and most of the others are tyrosine kinases, although additional types exist. Protein kinases are also found in bacteria and plants.
What directly happens when dsRNA activated protein kinase PKR is activated in a virally infected cell?
Upon binding dsRNA, PKR undergoes autophosphorylation reactions that activate the kinase. PKR then phosphorylates eIF2α, thus inhibiting protein synthesis in virally-infected cells.
What is PKR immunology?
PKR is an interferon-induced kinase that plays a pivotal role in the innate immunity pathway for defense against viral infection. PKR is activated to undergo autophosphorylation upon binding to RNAs that contain duplex regions. Some highly structured viral RNAs do not activate and function as PKR inhibitors.
What viral component is recognized by PKR?
As a critical PRR recognizing virus dsRNA, PKR primarily acts as a viral antagonist through activation of the type I IFN signaling pathway.
What are biochemistry kinases?
kinase, an enzyme that adds phosphate groups (PO43−) to other molecules. A large number of kinases exist—the human genome contains at least 500 kinase-encoding genes. Included among these enzymes’ targets for phosphate group addition (phosphorylation) are proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
How many protein kinases are there?
All 498 protein kinases fall in any one of the 10 groups.
What is Mx gene?
MX1 Gene – MX Dynamin Like GTPase 1 This gene encodes a guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-metabolizing protein that participates in the cellular antiviral response. The encoded protein is induced by type I and type II interferons and antagonizes the replication process of several different RNA and DNA viruses.