What are upper air stations?

What are upper air stations?

A surface location from which radiosonde observations are made.

What is upper air observatories?

Upper Air Observation Upper – Air observation is used to record the vertical profile of the atmosphere, information that is essential to create a global overview of the current and future state of the atmosphere.

What is the difference between a radiosonde and a Rawinsonde?

A radiosonde observation provides only pressure, temperature, and relative humidity data. When a radiosonde is tracked so that winds aloft are provided in addition to the pressure, temperature, and relative humidity data, it is called a rawinsonde observation.

Why are upper air observations used in weather forecasting?

The upper air “sounding” allows forecasters to evaluate the vertical distribution of temperature, humidity and wind, which is critical to forecasting severe thunderstorms and tornadoes in the summer and winter storms in the winter.

How are upper air maps created?

Upper-air weather maps differ from surface weather maps. Whereas surface weather conditions are plotted on a map of constant altitude (normally sea- level), upper-air weather conditions are plotted on maps of constant air pressure. The altitude at which the particular pressure is located is reported on these maps.

What do 00Z and 12Z mean?

Z: When you see a time like 12Z, 00Z, 06Z, etc… Z simply stands for Universal Coordinated Time, the time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is equivalent to GMT, or Greenwich Mean Time. This is six hours ahead of local time, but when we are on Daylight Saving Time is is 5 hours ahead of us.

What does upper air mean?

upper air in American English noun. Meteorology. the atmosphere above the lower portion of the troposphere.

What is an upper air report?

Upper air data are meteorological data that are measured in the vertical layers of the atmosphere. Upper air data are usually measured by twice daily radionsonde soundings, taken at 00 and 12Z (Greenwich time).

What is the cost of 1 radiosonde?

about $200
Each individual radiosonde costs about $200. The cost of establishing a radiosonde ground station makes it difficult to increase the spatial extent of the radiosonde network, which is particularly deficient in vast regions of the Southern Hemisphere.

How are upper air data collected?

Upper air data are usually measured by twice daily radionsonde soundings, taken at 00 and 12Z (Greenwich time). There are other collection methods for gathering upper air data, though radiosonde soundings are the method usually employed for local-scale dispersion modeling.

What are some advances in upper-air observing technology?

Other advances in upper-air observing technology included the development of operational remote observing systems such as wind profilers and the placement of temperature and water vapor sensors on commercial jet aircraft that transmit these and other data in real-time.

How was upper air observation used in the 17th century?

Upper air observations began as early as 1749 in Europe with the use of a kite to carry aloft a thermometer. A few years later, in the American Colonies, Ben Franklin conducted a very dangerous experiment by flying a kite near a thunderstorm to demonstrate the electrical nature of lightning.

How can we perform upper-air observation without human intervention?

Through the use of a Personal Computer (PC) and interfaces to automatically acquire, process, and disseminate flight data, upper-air observations could be performed with minimal human intervention.

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