How serious is Citrobacter freundii?

How serious is Citrobacter freundii?

Citrobacter freundii and Citrobacter koseri can cause urinary tract infections, and are found in wound, respiratory, meningitis, and sepsis. They can cause healthcare-associated infections, especially in pediatric and immunocompromised patients [41].

What disease does Citrobacter freundii cause?

Citrobacter freundii (genus Citrobacter, family Enterobacteriaceae) is classically considered a ubiquitous and opportunistic pathogen. In humans, C. freundii causes urinary tract infections, diarrhea, pneumonia, and, rarely, meningitis and intracranial abscesses.

Is Citrobacter treatable?

Treatment is with an aminoglycoside or an extended-spectrum cephalosporin. Almost all isolates are ampicillin resistant. The fatality rate for Citrobacter infections in newborns and older immunocompromised patients with Citrobacter pneumonia has been said to be high.

How is Citrobacter freundii transmitted?

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Citrobacter may be spread by direct contact with hospital staff members, mother to child transmission or through ingestion of environmental sources (fecal-oral route) but person-to-person transmission is more prevalent 7, 11.

How is C. freundii treated?

freundii infections, the third-generation cephalosporins, aztreonam, piperacillin, piperacillin plus tazobactam, and many new oral cephems (including cefixime, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefprozil, cefetamet pivoxil, and ceftibuten) can also be used for treatment of C.

Does Citrobacter freundii produce gas?

All strains ferment glucose under acid production and about 90% of them also under gas production. Sorbose phosphate +.

Is Citrobacter freundii a coliform?

The MF technique indicated that Citrobacter freundii was the most common coliform species in water samples.

How common is Citrobacter freundii?

freundii infections. Although Citrobacter spp. are less commonly isolated, they are emerging as a common nosocomial multidrug-resistant pathogen, especially in developing countries. UTI caused by Citrobacter spp. have been seen in 12% patients in 1961, and since then, its prevalence has been increasing.

What is the best antibiotic for Citrobacter freundii?

Aminoglycosides (gentamicin, netilmicin, amikacin), fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin), and carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem) were the most active agents against both C. freundii and C. koseri.

How common is Citrobacter freundii UTI?

What color is Citrobacter freundii?

Citrobacter freundii on Nutrient Agar Smooth, convex, translucent, or opaque grey colored with a shiny surface and entire margin; mucoid or rough colonies occasionally.

Does Citrobacter cause UTI?

UTIs caused by Citrobacter species have been described in 5 to 12% of bacterial urine isolates in adults. [3,4,5] We report here the emergence of Citrobacter as an increasingly common urinary pathogen in hospitalized patients.

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